Technology
Superconducting RF
Paper Title Page
MO1A02 An Overview of Recent Developments in SRF Technology 6
 
  • R.E. Laxdal
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) is now the technology of choice for both large and small linac projects. Several challenging projects are in progress or planned that are pushing SRF technology and/or are enabled by SRF technology. This paper gives an overview of the present status of the field.  
slides icon Slides MO1A02 [4.202 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-MO1A02  
About • paper received ※ 16 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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MOPO130 Magnetic Flux Generated by Thermal Current in CEBAF 5-Cell Cavity System 273
 
  • R.L. Geng
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • S.C. Huang
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
  The unloaded quality factor Q0 of many 5-cell CEBAF cavities were lowered by a factor of ~2 from their vertical qualification testing to their beam operation in CEBAF tunnel. Causes of this Q0 degradation were studied previously, including a more recent one addressing static fluxes arising from magnetic components near a 5-cell cavity. This paper reports on a preliminary study of the dynamic fluxes generated by a thermal current. Such a thermal current arises from the Seebeck effect and flows in closed loops formed by a niobium cavity and its surrounding tuner rods and liquid helium vessel that are made of stainless-steel. The behaviors of magnetic fluxes in response to various thermal profiles on a 5-cell CEBAF cavity with integrated tuner rods were studied in a JLAB VTA dewar. An outcome of this study is a proposed cool-down procedure for eliminating the thermal current generated magnetic fluxes around 5-cell cavities placed in CEBAF tunnels. This procedure may be useful to improve cavity Q0 in a cost-effective manner, which in turn saves cryogenic expenditures for sustaining CEBAF operation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-MOPO130  
About • paper received ※ 01 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TU1A03 Status and Issues (Microphonics, LFD, MPS) with TRIUMF ARIEL e-Linac Commissioning 286
 
  • S.R. Koscielniak, M. Alcorta, F. Ames, E. Chapman, K. Fong, B. Humphries, O.K. Kester, D. Kishi, R.E. Laxdal, Y. Ma, T. Planche, M. Rowe, S.D. Rädel, V.A. Verzilov, Z.Y. Yao
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  The ARIEL electron linac (e-linac) is designed to generate cw beams of up to 30 MeV and 10 mA for delivery to a photo-convertor. Bremsstrahlung induced fission of a production target yields neutron-rich rare isotope beams to be supplied to the ISAC experimental facilities. The beam power will eventually reach 300 kW, and a machine protection system (MPS) with 10 μs rapidity is essential. The e-linac, which adopts 1.3 GHz, 2K SRF technology, is composed of a 10 MeV single-cavity injector cryomodule (EINJ) and a 20 MeV two-cavity accelerator cryomodule (EACA). The latter has vector-sum control of two cavities driven from a single klystron. Beam commissioning of these systems is ongoing since 2016. The magnetic optics and MPS commissioning to 10 MeV is reported herein. Beam has been accelerated up to 25 MeV, and thread-ed to the high energy dump (EHD). A campaign to investigate microphonics driving terms, LN2 disturb-ances, and a ponderomotive instability in the EACA, is underway.  
slides icon Slides TU1A03 [9.683 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TU1A03  
About • paper received ※ 17 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TU1A05 Seamless Quarter Wave Resonators for HIE ISOLDE 292
 
  • W. Venturini Delsolaro, A. Miyazaki
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
 
  The HIE-ISOLDE post accelerator consists of 4 cryomodules with 5 niobium-coated Quarter Wave Reso-nators (QWR) each. The standard manufacturing tech-nique was to machine the inner and outer conductor sepa-rately, to shrink-fit the 2 pieces and to apply an electron beam welding at the interface. Due toμcracks, ob-served on some of the cavities around the welds, we took the decision to explore the possibility of a seamless de-sign. First cavities became available in late 2017 and were then cold-tested in the vertical cryostat. These seam-less coated quarter wave resonators have shown some of the highest Q-values of all HIE-ISOLDE cavities in the acceptance tests. Furthermore, we studied the cavity per-formance with different compensations of the earth mag-netic field and different temperature gradients upon cool down. These tests have demonstrated record-breaking RF surface fields for the Nb/Cu technology. This paper re-views the design and fabrication and reports on the cold tests results of seamless quarter wave resonators, and of possible future applications  
slides icon Slides TU1A05 [30.518 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TU1A05  
About • paper received ※ 11 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO027 Series Production of the Specific Waveguide Distribution for the European XFEL at DESY 380
TUPO024   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • B. Yildirim, S. Choroba, V.V. Katalev, P. Morozov, Y. Nachtigal
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • E.M. Apostolov
    Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
 
  Series Production of the Specific Waveguide Distribution for the European XFEL at DESY B.Yildirim, S.Choroba, V.Katalev, P.Morozov, Y.Nachtigal, E.Apostolov The European XFEL uses 100 accelerating cryomodules. One RF station with 10 MW klystron supplies four cryomodules, each with eight cavities, through a waveguide distribution system. The RF station operates at 1.3 GHz, 1.37 ms pulse width and 10 Hz repetition rate. The results of the cryomodule test have shown however different maximum gradients for each cavity. The maximum gradient has been measured between 11 MV/m and 31 MV/m, which requires the cavity power from 29 kW to 230 kW. To operate with the maximum energy for every cryomodule, it is necessary to supply individual power to the cavity. In this case the weakest cavity problem can be avoided. For this goal a specific waveguide distribution has been developed. 100 waveguide distributions have been successfully tailored, produced and tested at the Waveguide Assembly Test Facility (WATF) at DESY and finally assembled to the cryomodules. We present the series production of the specific waveguide distributions at the WATF.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO027  
About • paper received ※ 06 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO028 Retreatment of European XFEL Series Cavities at DESY as Part of the Repair of European XFEL Accelerating Modules 384
 
  • S. Sievers, N. Krupka, D. Reschke, S. Saegebarth, J. Schaffran, M. Schalwat, P. Schilling, M. Schmökel, N. Steinhau-Kühl, E. Vogel, H. Weise, B. van der Horst
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Wiencek
    IFJ-PAN, Kraków, Poland
 
  For the European XFEL 102 accelerating modules were built and tested. Several accelerating modules had to be reworked due to different kinds of non-conformities. The extent of this rework varied greatly. At the end of production four accelerating modules could not be qualified in time before the tunnel installation was to be finished in September 2016. Meanwhile the cavity strings of two of these accelerating modules have been disassembled in the DESY clean room. The cavities have been retreated at DESY either by additional high pressure water rinsing or BCP flash chemical treatment. All cavities were vertically tested and 15 out of 16 were qualified for the reassembly of the cavity strings. One accelerating module will be reassembled completely and tested until the end of 2018; the other will follow in the first half of 2019. We report on retreatment procedures and performance of these cavities.  
poster icon Poster TUPO028 [1.662 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO028  
About • paper received ※ 11 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO029 Highlights of the XM-3 Cryomodule Tests at DESY 388
 
  • J. Branlard, V. Ayvazyan, A. Bellandi, J. Eschke, C. Gumus, D. Kostin, K.P. Przygoda, H. Schlarb, J.K. Sekutowicz
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • W. Cichalewski
    TUL-DMCS, Łódź, Poland
 
  To investigate the feasibility of the continuous wave (cw) upgrade of the European XFEL (E-XFEL) DESY, on-going tests are performed on E-XFEL prototype and production cryomodules since 2011. For these studies, DESY’s Cryo-Module Test Bench (CMTB) has been equipped with a 105 kW cw operating IOT in addition to the 10MW pulsed klystron, making CMTB a very flexible test stand, enabling both cw and pulse operation. For these tests, E-XFEL-like LLRF electronics is used to stabilize amplitude and phase of the voltage Vector Sum (VS) of all 8 cavities of the cryomodule under test. The cryomodule most often tested is the pre-series XM-3, unique since it is housing one fine grain niobium and seven large grain niobium cavities. In autumn 2017, additional spacers were installed on all 8 input couplers to increase the maximum reachable loaded quality factor Ql beyond 2·107. With higher Ql, up to 6·107 for 6 cavities and 2.7·107 for 2 cavities, we have investigated the VS stability and SRF-performance of this cryomodule under various conditions of cooling down rate and operation temperature 1.65K, 1.8K and 2K, at gradients up to ca. 18MV/m. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO029  
About • paper received ※ 11 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO030 Precise Evaluation of Characteristic of the Multi-layer Thin-film Superconductor Consisting of NbN and Insulator on Pure Nb Substrate 391
TUOP03   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • R. Katayama, Y. Iwashita, H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • A. Four
    CEA/DRF/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • H. Hayano, T. Kubo, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • R. Ito, T. Nagata
    ULVAC, Inc, Chiba, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  In recent years, it has been pointed out that the maximum accelerating gradient of a superconducting RF cavity can be pushed up by coating the inner surface of the cavity with a multilayer thin-film structure that consists of alternating insulating and superconducting layers. In this structure, the principal parameter that limits the performance of the cavity is the critical magnetic field or effective Hc1 at which vortices start penetrating into the superconductor layer, and it is predicted to depend on the combination of the film thickness. We made samples that have NbN/SiO2 thin-film structure on pure Nb substrate with several thicknesses of NbN film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering method. Here, we report the measurement results of effective Hc1 of the NbN sample with a thickness of 200 nm by using the third-harmonic voltage method. In addition, we report the preliminary results to evaluate the dependence of the effective Hc1 on the thickness of the NbN film in the range 50 nm-200 nm.  
slides icon Slides TUPO030 [0.305 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO030  
About • paper received ※ 18 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO031 Investigation of the Surface Resistance of Niobium Between 325 MHz and 1300 MHz Using a Coaxial Half-wave Cavity 395
TUOP04   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • H. Park, S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  The Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University has built a half-wave coaxial cavity (*) to measure the surface resistance of niobium as a function of frequency, temperature, rf field, preparation techniques, over a wide range of frequencies of interest for particle accelerators. The characteristics of the half-wave coaxial cavity provide these information on a same surface. The preliminary results showed clearly the frequency dependence of residual surface resistance (**). After establishing baseline, we have conducted a study of low temperature baking effect on the surface resistance under controlled environment. This paper will describe the details of the test procedure, results and we will explore underlying physics of the phenomenon.
* H. Park et al., MOPB003, Proc. SRF2015, http://jacow.org/
** H. Park et al., THPB080, Proc. SRF2017, http://jacow.org/
 
slides icon Slides TUPO031 [0.966 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO031  
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TUPO032 First Test Results of Superconducting Twin Axis Cavity for ERL Applications 398
 
  • H. Park, S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • A. Hutton, F. Marhauser, H. Park
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  Superconducting cavities with two beam pipes had been proposed in the past for energy recovery linac applications. The relatively complex geometry of those cavities presented a serious challenge for fabrication and surface processing. Main concerns have now been overcome with the production and successful RF testing of a new elliptical twin-axis cavity proposed by Jefferson Lab and optimized by the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University in the frame of a DoE accelerator stewardship program. The cavity design provides uniform accelerating or decelerating fields for both beams. This paper describes the cavity design, fabrication experience, and the first cold RF test results and explores potential applications especially for Jefferson Lab s EIC (JLEIC).  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO032  
About • paper received ※ 20 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO033 Cryogenic Test Results of the SPS Prototype RF-dipole Crabbing Cavity with Higher Order Mode Couplers 402
TUOP05   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • S.U. De Silva, J.R. Delayen, H. Park
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • Z. Li
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • H. Park
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
 
  The rf-dipole crabbing cavity planned for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade is designed to deliver a transverse kick of 3.34 MV; crabbing the proton beam in the horizontal plane. The proton beams of the LHC machine operating at 7 TeV each sets high impedance thresholds on the crabbing cavity systems. The rf-dipole crabbing cavity is designed with a two higher order mode couplers to suppress those HOMs. The first prototype of the HOM couplers are fabricated at Jefferson Lab. This paper reports the cryogenic test results of the HOM couplers with the SPS prototype rf-dipole cavity.  
slides icon Slides TUPO033 [0.859 MB]  
poster icon Poster TUPO033 [1.838 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO033  
About • paper received ※ 17 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO035 Determination of the Field-dependence of the Surface Resistance of Superconductors from Cavity Tests 405
TUOP12   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • J.R. Delayen, S.U. De Silva, H. Park
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
 
  Cryogenic tests of superconducting cavities yield an average surface resistance as a function of the peak surface magnetic field. An analytical formalism has been developed to extract the actual field dependence of the surface resistance from cavity tests and is applied to coaxial cavities and cavities of more complex geometries.  
slides icon Slides TUPO035 [0.524 MB]  
poster icon Poster TUPO035 [1.002 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO035  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO036 Vertical Test Results of Plasma In-situ Cleaning on Low Beta HWR Cavity 408
TUOP06   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • A.D. Wu, H. Guo, Y. He, C.F. Hu, S.C. Huang, C.L. Li, Y.M. Li, X. Liu, F. Pan, Y.K. Song, P.R. Xiong, L. Yang, W.M. Yue, C. Zhang, S.H. Zhang, H.W. Zhao
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
  Field emission occurred in SRF cavity is the major limitation to operate at high gradient with stability. The plasma in-situ cleaning for the low beta HWR cavity was carried out to remove the hydrocarbons contaminants on the inner cavity surface. And the vertical test results indicated that the field emission effect was relieved with the increasing of the quench point and emission set-on point. Thus, oxygen active plasma processing can be an effective method to solve the field emission issues for the low beta HWR cavity.  
slides icon Slides TUPO036 [1.281 MB]  
poster icon Poster TUPO036 [0.672 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO036  
About • paper received ※ 11 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO038 Several Experimental Phenomena of Sn Nucleation on Nb Surface Observed at IMP 412
TUPO037   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Z.Q. Yang, Y. He, F. Pan
    IMP/CAS, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
  Nucleation process is an important step that affects the quality of Nb3Sn films coated by vapor diffusion method. A uniform distribution of nucleation centers is essential to the uniformity of Nb3Sn films. In this paper we report several experimental phenomena on the Sn nucleation on Nb surface. Better nucleation in the downstream of the pumping direction was observed. Influence of SnCl2 partial pressure inhomogeneity was studied. Samples with higher SnCl2 partial pressure have denser nucleation, which means homogeneous SnCl2 pressure is a critical factor to the uniform nucleation. Less-nuclear zones, mainly distributed at cracks, grain boundaries and even some whole grain surfaces, were found on the surfaces of all samples. The less-nuclear zones may result in the low tin regions of the Nb3Sn cavities. The specific solution to the less-nuclear problem was proposed. These studies help to better understanding of the mechanism underlying the nucleation process and will be useful foundation for the follow-up Nb3Sn/Nb project at IMP.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO038  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO039 Tests of the Balloon Single Spoke Resonator 417
TUOP07   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Z.Y. Yao, J.J. Keir, D. Kishi, D. Lang, R.E. Laxdal, H. Liu, Y. Ma, B. Matheson, B.S. Waraich, Q. Zheng, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  A balloon variant of the single spoke resonator (SSR) has been designed, fabricated and tested. The cavity is the SSR1 prototype for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea. It is specifically designed to reduce the likelihood of multipacting barriers near the operating point. A systematic multipacting study leads to a novel geometry, a spherical cavity with re-entrant irises and a spoke. Other than eliminating multipacting around operational gradient, the balloon shape also provides competitive RF parameters and robust mechanical structure. Cryostat cold tests demonstrated cavity performance on each design aspect. The cold tests will be reported in this paper.  
slides icon Slides TUPO039 [25.279 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO039  
About • paper received ※ 17 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO040 Tests of Multi-frequency Coaxial Resonators 420
 
  • Z.Y. Yao, J.J. Keir, P. Kolb, A. Kong, R.E. Laxdal, B. Matheson, E. Thoeng, B.S. Waraich, Q. Zheng, V. Zvyagintsev
    TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada
 
  A significant issue in low beta resonators is medium field Q-slope (MFQS) at 4K. To study the MFQS and the field dependence of surface resistance in low beta resonators, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and a half-wave resonator (HWR) were designed to be tested at integer harmonic frequencies of 200MHz, and up to 1.2GHz. A series of chemistry and heat treatments are proposed to these cavities. A systemic study on the surface resistance of the coaxial resonators associating with post-processing, RF field, and frequency is in progress. The cavities were designed and fabricated. The cold test results will be discussed in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO040  
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TUPO041 LCLS-II Cavity Higher Order Modes Coupler Tuning Optimization and Challenges at Jefferson Lab 423
 
  • A.D. Solopova, D. Forehand, A.D. Palczewski
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • T.N. Khabiboulline
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
 
  LCLS-II is a new XFEL linac based on 1.3GHz SRF linac. Half of the LCLS-II cryomodules are being produced at Jefferson Lab. This paper summarizes the Higher Order Mode filter tuning challenges at Jefferson Lab and describes optimization of the procedure for a 9-cell Tesla type cavity and its integration into a cryomodule production line.  
poster icon Poster TUPO041 [0.719 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO041  
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TUPO042 RF Results of Nb Coated SRF Accelerator Cavities via HiPIMS 427
 
  • M.C. Burton, A.D. Palczewski, H.L. Phillips, C.E. Reece, A-M. Valente-Feliciano
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • R.A. Lukaszew
    The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA
 
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Bulk Niobium (Nb) SRF (superconducting radio frequency) cavities are currently the preferred method for acceleration of charged particles at accelerator facilities around the world. Since the SRF phenomena occurs within a shallow depth of 40 nm (for Nb), a proposed option has been to deposit a superconducting Nb thin film on the interior of a cavity made of a suitable alternative material such as copper or aluminum. While this approach has been attempted in the past using DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS), such cavities have never performed at the bulk Nb level. However, new energetic condensation techniques for film deposition offer the opportunity to create suitably thick Nb films with improved density, microstructure and adhesion compared to traditional DCMS. One such technique that has been developed somewhat recently is ’High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering’ (HiPIMS). Here we report early results from various thin film coatings carried out on 1.3 GHz Cu Cavities, a 1.5 GHz Nb cavity and small Cu coupon samples coated at Jefferson Lab using HiPIMS.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO042  
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TUPO043 New Progress with HF-free Chemical Finishing for Nb SRF Cavities 431
 
  • H. Tian, J. Carroll, C.E. Reece, B. Straka
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • T.D. Hall, M.E. Inman, R. Radhakrishnan, E.J. Taylor
    Faraday Technology, Inc., Clayton, Ohio, USA
 
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.
Jefferson Lab has implemented a bipolar pulsed electropolishing system for final chemical processing of niobium SRF cavities. This FARADAYIC bi-polar electropolishing (BPEP) has been applied to single cells, a 7-cell CEBAF C100 cavity, and to 9-cell TESLA-style cavities.* As a mechanistic characterization of the process emerges, the critical role played by the local current density during each cathodic pulse is becoming clear. This influences system and operational parameter refinement. We present current process parameters, removal characterization, and rf performance of the processed cavities. This is the fruit of collaborative work between Jefferson Lab and Faraday Technology, Inc. directed toward the routine commercialization and industrialization of niobium cavity processing. We also present supporting data from controlled-parameter coupon studies
* E.J. Taylor, et al. "Electrochemical system and method for electropolishing superconductive radio frequency cavities" U.S. Pat. No. 9,006, 147 (& international counterparts) issued April 14, 2015.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO043  
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TUPO045 Optimization of Dual Axis Asymmetric Cavity for Energy Recovery Linac 435
SPWR022   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Ya.V. Shashkov, A.M. Bulygin, M. Gusarova
    MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
  • I.V. Konoplev
    JAI, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • F. Marhauser
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • A. Seryi
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
 
  Funding: The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 18-302-00990
Optimization of the dual axis asymmetric cavity was performed to minimize the ratio of the peak magnetic and electric fields values to the accelerating voltage, to increase the distance between operating and neighbouring modes as well as to reduce the manufacturing cost of the cavity. To reach the goals several solutions have been suggested bringing the ratios to the acceptable values and leading to simplification of the manufacturing of the structure.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO045  
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TUPO048 Study Progress of Pulse Laser Annealing for Niobium Film on Copper 438
SPWR021   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • Y. Yang, B.T. Li, X.Y. Lu, W.W. Tan, L. Xiao, D. Xie, D.Y. Yang
    PKU, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: Work supported by Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91026001).
The recent studies of laser annealing on niobium films on copper are reported. Annealing is normally used to deal with the surface, reducing defects and even chang-ing the microstructure of the coating film. Short pulse laser can produce a sharp step temperature field on the film thickness scale (μm), which anneals the surface without substrate heated. The laser annealing experi-ments of niobium thin film sample have been carried out, and according to SEM and FIB results, Nb films melted and recrystallization occurred. Grains growing up can be observed while the power density of laser pulse in-creased.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO048  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO049 Nitrogen Doping Study With 1.3 GHz Single Cell Superconducting Cavities 442
 
  • S. Chen, M. Chen, L.W. Feng, J.K. Hao, L. Lin, K.X. Liu, S.W. Quan, F. Wang, F. Zhu
    PKU, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Nitrogen doping studies were carried out at Peking University. A series of 1.3 GHz single cell cavities fabricated with OTIC large grain niobium material were annealed and doped in the furnace of Peking University, and electropolished by a simple EP device. Light doping recipe and heavy doping recipe are both adopted for comparison. The results and analysis are presented in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO049  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO050 Construction of Thin-film Coating System Toward the Realization of Superconducting Multilayered Structure 445
 
  • R. Ito, T. Nagata
    ULVAC, Inc, Chiba, Japan
  • H. Hayano, T. Kubo, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Y. Iwashita, R. Katayama
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  Although S-I-S (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) multilayered structure is expected to increase the maximum acceleration gradient of SRF cavities, in order for it to function in reality, it is necessary to develop a coating processing that can realize high purity and quality superconducting thin-films. We launched the co-sputtering system to create superconducting alloy thin-films such as Nb3Sn and to research how the characteristics of them change depending on the coating conditions. The deposition rate of two elements was optimized by adjusting each input power, so we successfully obtained an alloy thin-film having appropriate composition ratio. In addition, we developed another experimental equipment for coating on the inner surface of the 3GHz TESLA type small cavities. A cylindrical shape Nb in which some permanent magnets are inserted was adopted as the sputtering target. Glow discharge of the target was confirmed, and the inner-sputtering test was conducted. This presentation reports the specifications of the two sputtering apparatuses and the results of the coating test.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO050  
About • paper received ※ 18 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO051 Design Considerations of a Balloon-shaped SSR Superconducting Cavity 448
 
  • H.J. Cha, S.W. Jang, E.-S. Kim, K.R. Kim, S. H. Park, J.Y. Yoon
    Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong, Republic of Korea
 
  A single spoke resonator (SSR, β = 0.51 and f = 325 MHz) is being developed at Korea University. It is well-known that a traditional spoke cavity having flat or round end walls has broad multipacting ranges in acceleration gradient, sometimes including operation region. In general, quite long conditioning time is consumed to overcome such multipacting barriers. In this study, we introduce a balloon-shaped SSR superconducting cavity for the multipacting mitigation due to structural simplicity. The electromagnetic modeling of the SSR was made based on the RF parameter optimization. The simulation results show much narrower multipacting bandwidth, compared to those for the traditional spoke cavity. Mechanical analyses with stiffening structure at maximum allowable working pressures indicate acceptable stresses at the SSR cavity wall. In addition, the resonant frequency shifts due to fabrication and processing for cold tests are predicted and power coupling and tuning mechanism are also investigated.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO051  
About • paper received ※ 10 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO052 Design Study of a Prototype 325MHz RF Power Coupler for Superconducting Cavity 451
 
  • J.Y. Yoon, J.B. Bhang, H.J. Cha, S.W. Jang, E.-S. Kim, K.R. Kim, C.S. Park, S. H. Park
    Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong, Republic of Korea
  • E. Kako
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • D.Y. Kim, J. Lee
    Vitzrotech Co., Ltd., Ansan City, Kyunggi-Do, Republic of Korea
  • I. Shin
    IBS, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
 
  Funding: Korea University (Sejong Campus) in South KOREA
We present design studies of a prototype RF input power coupler, which provides RF powers to 325MHz cavities up to 18.5 kW in CW mode. The prototype power coupler is a coaxial capacitive type with single ceramic window. In order to optimize the RF coupler design, we performed multi-physics simulations, including electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical analyses.
 
poster icon Poster TUPO052 [1.607 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO052  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO053 Fabrication of Nb Mushroom Shaped Cavity for Evaluation of Multi-layer Thin-film Superconductor 454
 
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
  • K. Enami, H. Hayano, H. Inoue
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Higashiguchi
    Center for Optical Research and Education, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  The accelerating gradient of the Nb superconducting RF cavity seems to reach the limit due to the RF critical magnetic field of the Nb material. To obtain more higher gradient, there has been proposed a method of increasing an RF critical magnetic field of the cavity inner surface by coating of multi-layer thin-film superconductor. It is needed to demonstrate improvement RF critical magnetic field of the RF cavity coated with multi-layer thin-film superconductor. To optimize thin-film superconductor, sample tests are required. A cavity for sample test is necessary to produce a strong RF magnetic field parallel to the surface of the sample for evaluating RF critical magnetic field. For such a cavity, we designed a mushroom shaped cavity made of Nb which is operated in cryogenic temperature. Input and pick up antenna coupler are also designed electrically and mechanically. The connection design of sample plate and cavity bottom plate in superconducting state is also designed. The Nb mushroom shaped cavity is under fabrication. Fabrication method and status are reported in this paper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO053  
About • paper received ※ 17 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO054 Fundamental Studies of Impurity Doping in 1.3 GHz and Higher Frequency SRF Cavities 458
SPWR018   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
TUOP01   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • J.T. Maniscalco, P.N. Koufalis, M. Liepe
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  As the demand for more powerful, more efficient, and smaller superconducting RF accelerators continues to increase, both impurity doping and high-frequency cavities (> 1.3 GHz) have become hot topics for fundamental research because of their potential to significantly decrease surface losses and cost respectively. In this report, we present recent experimental and theoretical results on undoped and nitrogen-doped high-frequency cavities and on alternative doping agents in traditional 1.3 GHz cavities, with a focus on understanding the fundamental science of impurity doping.  
slides icon Slides TUPO054 [1.956 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO054  
About • paper received ※ 16 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO055 Next Generation Nb3Sn SRF Cavities for Linear Accelerators 462
 
  • R.D. Porter, D.L. Hall, M. Liepe, J.T. Maniscalco
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • T. Arias, P. Cueva, D.A. Muller, N. Sitaraman
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Niobium-3 Tin (Nb3Sn) is a very promising alternative material for SRF accelerator cavities. The material can achieve higher quality factors, higher temperature operation and potentially higher accelerating gradients (~ 96 MV/m) compared to conventional niobium. This material is formed by vaporizing Sn in a high temperature vacuum furnace and letting the Sn absorb into a Nb substrate to form a 2-3 um Nb3Sn layer. Current Nb3Sn cavities produced at Cornell achieve Q ~ 1010 at 4.2 K and 17 MV/m. Here we present a summary of the current performance of Nb3Sn cavities at Cornell and recent progress in improving the accelerating gradient.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO055  
About • paper received ※ 20 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO057 Low-temperature Baking and Infusion Studies for High-gradient ILC SRF Cavities 466
 
  • M. Ge, P.N. Koufalis, G. Kulina, M. Liepe, J.T. Maniscalco
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  Low-temperature infusion has become a hot-topic in SRF researches recently. Past results show that low-temperature infusion can produce high quality factor at medium accelerating fields. Also, 75°C baking recently has been shown to improve accelerating gradients of SRF cavities. Hence these treatments are very promising for reducing cost of the ILC. In this work, we present latest results of low temperature infusion and baking, showing that these treatments can improve SRF cavities performance.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO057  
About • paper received ※ 19 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO058 Cool Down Studies for the LCLS-II Project 470
 
  • M. Ge, M. Liepe
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • D. Gonnella
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  • J. Sears
    Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
 
  The quality factor of the nitrogen-doped SRF cavities for the LCLS-II project are strongly impacted by cool down speed. A sufficiently fast cool down speed can produce large thermal gradient across a cavity and sufficiently expel magnetic flux when the cavity wall passes from the normal-conducting to the superconducting state. However, instrumentation in LCLS-II production cryomodules has been kept at a minimum, and additional information during the cool down of the modules is therefore desirable. In this work, we study if and how RF data can be used during cavity cool-down to determine the transition speeds of the individual cavities in the LCLS-II linac.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO058  
About • paper received ※ 19 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO059 Latest Results of Salt Based Bipolar Electro-polishing R&D at Cornell 473
 
  • M. Ge, F. Furuta, T. Gruber, J.J. Kaufman, M. Liepe, R.D. Porter
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  • T.D. Hall, R. Radhakrishnan, S.T. Snyder, E.J. Taylor
    Faraday Technology, Inc., Clayton, Ohio, USA
 
  Acid free electropolishing would be safer to use and friendlier to the environment. A collaboration, sup-ported by the DOE SBIR Phase-II program, between Faraday Technology Inc. and Cornell University focused on salt-based bipolar electropolishing (BEP). In this paper, we present the latest salt-based BEP results. The superconducting performance of a single-cell 1.3GHz cavity has been carefully analyzed, showing that salt-based BEP is promising, but still has large room for improvement.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO059  
About • paper received ※ 19 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO064 Pre-study of CEPC SRF Cavity 476
 
  • P. Sha
    Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • J. Dai, C. Dong, H.F.S. Feisi, S. Jin, Z.Q. Li, B.Q. Liu, Z.H. Mi, J.Y. Zhai, X.Y. Zhang, H.J. Zheng
    IHEP, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
  • J.K. Hao, F. Wang
    PKU, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
 
  Funding: This study was supported by National Key Programme for S&T Research and Development (Grant NO.: 2016YFA0400400) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant NO.:11505197).
CEPC will use 650 MHz cavities for the collider and 1.3 GHz cavities for the Booster. Each booster cryomod-ule contains eight 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavities, which is simi-lar as LCLS-II, E-XFEL and ILC. Each collider cryo-module contains six 650 MHz 2-cell cavities, which is totally new. Therefore, the pre-study mainly focuses on the 650 MHz 2-cell cavity. N-doping and vertical tests of 650 MHz 1-cell and 2-cell cavities have been carried out at IHEP, which have achieved good results. A test cryomodule, which consists of two 650 MHz 2-cell cavities, has also begun as the first step to the full-scale cryomodule.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO064  
About • paper received ※ 31 August 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO065 Improvement of Cavity Performance by Nitrogen Doping at KEK 480
SPWR019   use link to see paper's listing under its alternate paper code  
 
  • T. Okada, Y. Hori, E. Kako, T. Konomi, H. Sakai, K. Umemori, Y. Yamamoto
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Dohmae, Y. Hori, E. Kako, T. Konomi, T. Saeki, T. Saeki, H. Sakai, K. Umemori, Y. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • J. Kamiya
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • S. Kurosawa, K. Takeishi
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
 
  Nitrogen doping experiments in single-cell and 3-cell niobium cavities were carried out at KEK. After annealing at 800 deg C for 3 hours, pure nitrogen gas with a pressure of 3 Pa for 20 minutes and 3 minutes were introduced for doping in a furnace in J-PARC, respectively. Removing surface in 5 um and 20 um by electropolishing were performed prior to the vertical tests, respectively. Increases of a quality factor at 2K and reduction of the BCS resistance with respect to an accelerating gradient were observed in both cavities.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO065  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO066 Lower Critical Field Measurement of Thin Film Superconductor 484
 
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • C.Z. Antoine
    CEA/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • A. Four
    CEA/DRF/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • H. Hayano, T. Kubo, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • R. Ito, T. Nagata
    ULVAC, Inc, Chiba, Japan
  • Y. Iwashita, R. Katayama, H. Tongu
    Kyoto ICR, Uji, Kyoto, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  Funding: The work is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientist (A) No.17H04839.
Superconducting thin film is the promising technology to increase the performance of SRF cavities. The lower critical field Hc1, which is one of the important physical parameters characterizing a superconducting material, will be enhanced by coating Nb with thin film superconductor such as NbN. To investigate the Hc1, we developed the Hc1 measurement system using the third harmonic response of applied AC magnetic field. The measurement system consists of helium cryostat with two of GM refrigerators, sample Cu stage, solenoid coil Cu mount, solenoid coil, temperature sensors, and liquid helium level meter. AC magnetic field is produced by a coil which is driven by function generator and power amplifier at around 1 kHz. In order to control the temperature of the sample, we installed heaters and thermal anchors which could be moved by the motor. By this temperature control the sample state can be easily transferred from Meissner state to mixed state. So that the measurement is repeated for various applied magnetic field, and the transition curve can be made. In this report, measurement result of the bulk Nb sample and NbN-SiO2 multilayer thin film sample will be discussed.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO066  
About • paper received ※ 19 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO067 Study on New Removal Thickness Distribution Improvement Methods for Niobium 9-cell Cavity Vertical Electropolishing with Ninja Cathode 488
 
  • K.N. Nii, V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Marui Galvanizing Co., Ltd. has been developing niobium 9-cell cavity vertical electropolishing (VEP) technologies with Ninja cathode in collaboration with KEK. Conventional 9-cell cavity VEP had a serious problem, which was asymmetry of removal thickness distribution. Usually removal thickness of upper side became larger than lower side in case of both in-cell and inter-cell. So far, as one solution, we proposed bubble diffusion prevention method and proved it was effective for uniform removal. This time, as other new solution, we tried cavity flip upside down and Ninja cathode masking VEP methods. In this article we will report the purpose, intention and VEP experiment result of these methods.  
poster icon Poster TUPO067 [0.858 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO067  
About • paper received ※ 13 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO068 Vertical Electropolishing of 1.3 GHz Niobium Nine-cell SRF Cavity: Bulk Removal and RF Performance 491
 
  • V. Chouhan, Y.I. Ida, K.N. Nii, T.Y. Yamaguchi
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Oikawa
    Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Japan
 
  Vertical electropolishing (VEP) technique have been successfully developed for 1.3 GHz niobium (Nb) single cell cavity to achieve a smooth surface with uniform removal and better RF performance as achieved after horizontal EP (HEP) process. VEP parameters for 1.3 GHz Nb nine-cell cavities are being studied using a nine-cell coupon cavity and our unique Ninja cathode. The investigated VEP parameters heretofore were applied on a 1.3 GHz Tesla shape nine-cell superconducting RF cavity for bulk removal of 100 µm followed by fine removal of 20 and 10 µm. The interior surface was found to be smooth and shiny after the VEP process. Our recently developed dual flow technique, in which the EP acid is flown separately in the Ninja cathode housing and cavity, yielded lower asymmetry in removal along the cavity length. The cavity was tested in a vertical cryostat after the final VEP process. The cavity achieved 28.3 MV/m at Q0 value of 6.7x109. The cavity performance was almost the same as in the baseline vertical test performed after the HEP process.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO068  
About • paper received ※ 13 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO069 Development of Vertical Electropolishing Facility for Nb 9-cell Cavity (2) 494
 
  • Y.I. Ida, V. Chouhan, K.N. Nii
    MGH, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • T. Akabori, G.M. Mitoya, K. Miyano
    HKK, Morioka, Japan
  • Y. Anetai, F. Takahashi
    WING. Co.Ltd, Iwate-ken, Japan
  • H. Hayano, S. Kato, H. Monjushiro, T. Saeki, M. Sawabe
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  In IPAC18 (Vancouver, Canada), we reported our first step of development of niobium 9-cell cavity vertical electropolishing (VEP) facility. In this article, we will report the method, system for uniform polishing for niobium 9-cell cavities and the current situation of our 9-cell cavity VEP facility (The result of polishing uniformity, vertical test will be presented in other posters of this conference). In addition, we will show the movie of experiments of VEP-3 with Ninja cathode. This facility aims not only for test VEP but also for mass production and long-time operation.  
poster icon Poster TUPO069 [0.316 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO069  
About • paper received ※ 13 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO070 Design and Commissioning of KEK New Vacuum Furnace for SRF Cavity Development 496
 
  • K. Umemori, M. Egi, E. Kako, T. Konomi, S. Michizono, H. Sakai
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Recently new techniques such as Nitrogen-doping and Nitrogen-infusion have been developed to improve performance of SRF (Superconducting RF) cavities. We purchased a new vacuum furnace, which is key to realize these techniques. Cleanness of the furnace is most important issue. The furnace has a cryo-pump and whole of vacuum system is oil-free system. Target vacuum level after cooling down is 1x10-6 Pa. Heater, reflectors and support table were made from Molybdenum to avoid contamination during heat treatment. Metal gaskets are used for all vacuum seals, except big doors. Maximum operation temperature is 1150 degree C. Size is around 1 m diameter and 2m long for a 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavity. Entrance of furnace is covered by a clean booth. The furnace was fabricated, assembled at KEK COI building and commissioned this year. After several burning runs, target vacuum pressure was achieved after cooling down to room temperature. Design of the furnace and performance during commissioning runs are presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO070  
About • paper received ※ 19 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO071 Study on Nitrogen Infusion for 1.3 GHz SRF Cavities Using J-PARC Furnace 499
 
  • K. Umemori, T. Dohmae, M. Egi, Y. Hori, E. Kako, T. Konomi, S. Michizono, T. Saeki, H. Sakai, Y. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • J. Kamiya
    JAEA/J-PARC, Tokai-mura, Japan
  • S. Kurosawa, K. Takeishi
    JAEA, Ibaraki-ken, Japan
  • T. Okada
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Nitrogen infusion (N-infusion) is new surface treatment technique for niobium SRF (Superconducting RF) cavities. After cooling down from 800 degree C heat treatment, a vacuum furnace and cavities are kept 120 degree C, 48 hours with about 3 Pa Nitrogen. Improvement of Q-value and accelerating gradient is expected. We used J-PARC furnace, since N-infusion procedure requires clean vacuum furnace. It has a cryo-pump and turbo molecular pumps and its vacuum system is oil-free system. Six times of N-infusion tests were carried out, while changing vacuum condition, N-infusion temperature, Nitrogen pressure, niobium material and so on. Niobium caps were mounted on cavities to avoid contaminations on inner surfaces. Some of trials were successful and vertical test results showed improvement of Q-values and accelerating gradient. However, some of them were not. Most of bad cases showed degradation of Q-values above 5 MV/m. Details of heat treatment procedure including N-infusion and vertical test results are shown in this presentation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO071  
About • paper received ※ 20 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO072 First Trial of the In-situ Nitrogen Infusion at KEK 503
 
  • T. Konomi, T. Dohmae, E. Kako, S. Michizono, H. Sakai, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Okada
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  The nitrogen infusion is the new surface treatment technique for improving the RF loss and the maximum accelerating gradient of superconducting cavity. In this process, it is important to be carried out continuously both the 800 C annealing in vacuum and 120 C nitrogen infusion without exposure to the atmosphere. The annealing serves activation process by removing the oxide layer. The in-situ nitrogen infusion system was prepared to investigate whether nitrogen infusion effect or something changes happen in the case of applying nitrogen infusion technique without removing the oxide layer. It can only introduce nitrogen into a cavity during 120 C low temperature baking and transport a cavity to the vertical test system without exposure to the atmosphere. We tried to infuse nitrogen to a single cell by keeping 120 C and 48 hours with 3 Pa nitrogen. The cavity was annealed in another furnace and applied high pressure rinsing before nitrogen infusion. The vertical test result was same Q as the normal 120 C baking without nitrogen. It suggests that oxide layer prevents infusion of nitrogen. In this poster, the in-situ nitrogen infusion system and vertical test results will be reported.  
poster icon Poster TUPO072 [4.653 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO072  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO073 Niobium Sample Analysis for Nitrogen Infusion and Doping 506
 
  • T. Konomi, E. Kako, S. Michizono, H. Sakai, K. Umemori
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • T. Nagata
    ULVAC, Inc., Tsukuba, Japan
  • T. Nojima
    Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
 
  KEK has been investigating the better conditions of the heat treatment in nitrogen, which are called as nitrogen doping and nitrogen infusion. We have tried to understand the high gradient performance of the cavity from the analyses of samples which were prepared in the same conditions for the cavity. The main tools are D-SIMS for the depth profile of the elemental concentration, XPS for composition analysis and SQUID magnetometry for the critical DC magnetic field measurement. The difference in the depth profiles of the nitrogen, carbon and oxygen between the heat treatment conditions was observed in vacuum and furnace temperature of nitrogen infusion by D-SIMS and XPS. Such a difference correlates with the vortex penetration field measured by SQUID. In particular, that of nitrogen doping sample was greatly degraded, while that of nitrogen infusion sample was slightly improved. The tendency is similar to the RF high gradient test results. Details of the sample analysis are shown in this presentation.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO073  
About • paper received ※ 18 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO074 Design and Fabrication of KEK Superconducting RF Gun #2 510
 
  • T. Konomi, Y. Honda, E. Kako, Y. Kobayashi, S. Michizono, T. Miyajima, H. Sakai, K. Umemori, S. Yamaguchi, M. Yamamoto
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Superconducting RF gun can realize high acceleration voltage and high beam repetition. KEK has been developing the 1.3 GHz elliptical type 1.5 cell superconducting RF gun to investigate fundamental performance. A surface cleaning method and tools are developed by using KEK SRFGUN #1 and high surface peak gradient 75 MV/m was achieved without field emission. SRFGUN #2 which equips the helium jacket and can be operated with electron beam was designed based on the SRFGUN #1. It can be operated with transmit type photocathode which include superconducting transparent material. The cathode plug is cooled by thermal conducting from the 2 K helium jacket and photocathode will be kept around 2K to maintain superconductivity. Bulk niobium photocathode plug and substrate will used for the fundamental performance test. In parallel, the photocathode deposition chamber for multi-alkali photocathode will be prepared.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO074  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TUPO076 An Innovative Nb3Sn Film Approach and Its Potential for SRF Applications 513
 
  • E.Z. Barzi, D. Turrioni, C. Ciaccia
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, R.A. Rimmer, A-M. Valente-Feliciano
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • S. Falletta
    Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy
  • H. Hayano, T. Saeki
    KEK, Ibaraki, Japan
  • H. Ito
    Sokendai, Ibaraki, Japan
  • A. Kikuchi
    NIMS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
 
  Funding: Work supported by U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359
A novel electro-chemical technique to produce Nb3Sn films on Nb substrates was developed and optimized at Fermilab. The Nb3Sn phase is obtained in a two-electrode cell, by electrodeposition from aqueous solutions of Sn layers and Cu intermediate layers onto Nb substrates. Subsequent thermal treatments in inert atmosphere are realized at a maximum temperature of 700°C to obtain the Nb3Sn superconducting phase. Several superconduct-ing Nb3Sn films were obtained on Nb substrates by study-ing and optimizing most parameters of the electro-plating process. Samples were characterized at Fermilab, NIMS, KEK and JLAB, including EPMA analyses, DC and in-ductive tests of critical temperature Tc0, and lower critical field Hc1(4.2 K) by SQUID. In parallel to sample devel-opment and fabrication at FNAL, at JLAB and KEK effort was put into etching and electro-polishing techniques adequate to remove the Cu and bronze phases from the samples’ outer surface. This is necessary prior to meas-urements at JLAB of the surface impedance of flat sam-ples in a setup that make use of an RF host cavity.
 
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TUPO076  
About • paper received ※ 21 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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TH2A01 Nitrogen Infusion R&D for CW Operation at DESY 652
 
  • M. Wenskat, A.D. Dangwal Pandey, B. Foster, T.F. Keller, D. Reschke, J. Schaffran, S. Sievers, N. Walker, H. Weise
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • C. Bate, G.D.L. Semione, A. Stierle
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • B. Foster
    University of Hamburg, Institut für Experimentalphysik, Hamburg, Germany
  • B. Foster
    Oxford University, Physics Department, Oxford, Oxon, United Kingdom
 
  The European XFEL cw upgrade requires cavities with reduced surface resistance (high Q-values) for high duty-cycle while maintaining high accelerating gradient for short-pulse operation. To improve on European XFEL performance, a recently discovered treatment is investigated: The so called Nitrogen-infusion. The recent test results of the cavity based R&D and the progress of the relevant infrastructure is presented. The aim of this approach is to establish a stable, reproducible recipe and to identify all key parameters for this process. In parallel, advanced surface analyses, such as SEM/EDX, TEM, XPS, XRR, GIXRD and TOF-SIMS, of samples after in-situ treatment, cut-outs of cavities and samples treated together with cavities are done. The aim of this approach is to understand the underlying processes of the material evolution, resulting in the improved performance. Results of these analyses, their implications for the cavity R&D, and next steps are presented.  
slides icon Slides TH2A01 [4.597 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ https://doi.org/10.18429/JACoW-LINAC2018-TH2A01  
About • paper received ※ 12 September 2018      issue date ※ 18 January 2019  
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